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Filed Under: | Academics / Physics | |

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Archived Since: | September 5, 2016 |

Give us an early bio on yourself Well, I was born and raised near Dallas, Texas as the only boy of 4 children. I grew up with 3 sisters, though I had another sister, 3 stepsisters, and a stepbrother that I did not live with. I’m only 10 minutes younger than my twin sister and […]

This is one chapter in a series on Mathematical Quantum Field Theory The previous chapter is 13. Quantization. The next chapter is 15. Scattering. 14. Free quantum fields In the previous chapter we discussed quantization of linear phase spaces, which turns the algebra of observables into a noncommutative algebra of quantum observables. Here we apply […]

This article is part of our student writer series. The writer Arman777, is an undergraduate physics student at METU Previous Chapter: A Journey Into the Cosmos – The Friedmann Equation Chapter 2- FLRW Metric and The Friedmann Equation In this chapter we will further investigate the Friedmann equation and we will […]

A topic that continually comes up in discussions of quantum mechanics is the existence of many different interpretations. Not only are there different interpretations, but people often get quite emphatic about the one they favor, so that discussions of QM can easily turn into long arguments. Sometimes this even reaches the point where proponents of […]

The following is one chapter in a series on Mathematical Quantum Field Theory. The previous chapter is 12. Gauge fixing. The next chapter is 14. Free quantum fields. 13. Quantization In the previous chapters we had found the Peierls-Poisson bracket (theorem 8.7) on the covariant phase space (prop. 8.6) of a gauge fixed (def. 12.1) […]

This is the first of a multi-part series of articles intended to give a concise overview of statistical mechanics and some of its applications. These articles are by no means comprehensive of the entire field, but aim to give a clear line of reasoning from Boltzmann’s equation to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. It is hoped that […]

In this Insight we will discuss the general Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) universe, in which a set of comoving observers with proper time ##t## observe the universe to be homogeneous and isotropic. In such a universe, the...Show More Summary

Introduction There are a number of posts on PF involving a general confusion over the multi-vairiable chain rule. The problem is often caused by a lack of clarity about the roles of functions and variables and what precisely each derivative means. This insight is an attempt to clarify things. Part A: The Single-Variable Chain Rule […]

A Short Proof of Birkoff’s Theorem derived the Schwarzschild metric in units of ##G = c = 1##: \begin{equation} ds^2 = -\left(1 – \frac{2M}{r}\right)dt^2 + \left(1 – \frac{2M}{r}\right)^{-1}dr^2 + r^2d\theta^2 + r^2 \sin^2\theta d\phi^2...Show More Summary

Civil discussion and debate is critical to Physics Forums. But it is also important in everyday life. When arguments get overheated, people may avoid engaging with friends and family and the relationships could wither and die. If the only safe topic you can discuss with your friend is weather, your relationship is in danger. So, […]

A Short Proof of Birkoff’s Theorem derived the Schwarzschild metric in units of ##G = c = 1##: \begin{equation} ds^2 = -\left(1 – \frac{2M}{r}\right)dt^2 + \left(1 – \frac{2M}{r}\right)^{-1}dr^2 + r^2d\theta^2 + r^2 \sin^2\theta d\phi^2...Show More Summary

The following is one chapter in a series of Mathematical Quantum Field Theory. The previous chapter is 11. Reduced phase space. The next chapter is 13. Quantization. 12. Gauge fixing While in the previous chapter we had constructed the reduced phase space of a Lagrangian field theory, embodied by the local BV-BRST complex (example 11.21), […]

A Global Positioning System (GPS) device gives your precise location by receiving light pulses from satellites with synchronized clocks then triangulating your location based on that information [1]. Since light travels at 300 million meters per second, your location will be off by about 1 meter if the clock times are off by only 3 […]

It is said that you should accomplish three things in life: Plant a tree. Have a child. Write a book. Out of the three, I have completed at least one. At the time of writing this Insight, my textbook “Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering” just hit the virtual online shelves. This Insight will describe […]

This article is part of our student writer series. The writer Arman777, is an undergraduate physics student at METU This is an introduction to cosmology who has some knowledge of calculus and basic physics. In this tutorial, we will take a journey into the cosmos to study cornerstone ideas in cosmology and their derivations. Let’s begin […]

The following is one chapter in a series on Mathematical Quantum Field Theory. The previous chapter is 10. Gauge symmetries. The next chapter is 12. Gauge fixing. 11. Reduced phase space For a Lagrangian field theory with infinitesimal gauge symmetries, the reduced phase space is the quotient of the shell (the solution-locus of the equations […]

After earning a 4.0 GPA in his first semester as a Physics major at an esteemed state university, our son (and homeschool grad) attributes his success to: 45% work ethic, 30% homeschool subject mastery, 25% reasonable course load. I was surprised he gave such greater weight to the work ethic we imparted rather than actual […]

Please give us a brief background on yourself Over 40 years ago, I studied mathematics, physics and computer science in Freiburg and Berlin (Germany). My Ph.D. thesis was in pure mathematics, but I was later drawn more and more into applied mathematics. Since 1994 I am a full professor of mathematics at the University of […]

Intransitive dice are sets of dice that don’t follow the usual rules for “is better/larger than”. If A

**This is one chapter in a series on Mathematical Quantum Field Theory. The previous chapter is 9. Propagators. The next chapter is 11. Reduced phase space. 10. Gauge symmetries An infinitesimal gauge symmetry of a Lagrangian field theory (def. 10.3 below) is a infinitesimal symmetry of the Lagrangian which may be freely parameterized, hence “gauged”, […]**