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Critical step in DNA repair, cellular aging pinpointed

The body's ability to repair DNA damage declines with age, which causes gradual cell demise, overall bodily degeneration and greater susceptibility to cancer. Now, research reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend their broken DNA.

New study finds that most cancer mutations are due to random DNA copying 'mistakes'

(Johns Hopkins Medicine) Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center scientists report data from a new study providing evidence that random, unpredictable DNA copying 'mistakes' account for nearly two-thirds of the mutations that cause cancer. Their research is grounded on a novel mathematical model based on DNA sequencing and epidemiologic data from around the world.

Most cancer mutations are due to random DNA copying 'mistakes'

Scientists report data from a new study providing evidence that random, unpredictable DNA copying 'mistakes' account for nearly two-thirds of the mutations that cause cancer. Their research is grounded on a novel mathematical model based on DNA sequencing and epidemiologic data from around the world.

A new approach to target an 'undruggable' prostate cancer driver

(Michigan Medicine - University of Michigan) When small-molecule inhibitors proved elusive, researchers developed a novel strategy: Using large molecule peptides to target a common prostate cancer driver. It may provide a path for developing new therapies against a challenging target.

Mass. General team identifies mechanisms behind resistance to FGFR inhibitor drug

(Massachusetts General Hospital) Investigators at the Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center have identified the first genetic mechanisms conferring acquired resistance to a promising group of targeted cancer drugs.

Virtual environment education reduces anxiety prior to radiation therapy

(Thomas Jefferson University) Radiation therapists and physicians know that education can reduce anxiety before radiation treatment but lack a standardized tool. In an effort to solve this problem, a multidisciplinary team from Jefferson...Show More Summary

Study examines birth outcomes for adolescent & young adult cancer survivors

(The JAMA Network Journals) A new article published online by JAMA Oncology from Hazel B. Nichols, Ph.D., Chelsea Anderson, M.P.H., and coauthors at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill used a data linkage between the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry and state birth certificate files to examine selected birth outcomes. Show More Summary

Preterm births more common in mothers who are cancer survivors

(UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center) In a study published in the journal JAMA Oncology, UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers report that women diagnosed and treated for cancer during their childbearing years more commonly gave birth prematurely, and to babies whose weights were below normal. Show More Summary

New era in precision medicine for pancreatic cancer

(Cancer Research UK) The development of new treatments for pancreatic cancer is set to be transformed by a network of clinical trials, aiming to find the right trial for the right patient, after a £10 million investment from Cancer Research UK today.

Researchers help map future of precision medicine in Parkinson's disease

A new transformative approach to defining, studying and treating Parkinson's disease has been revealed by investigators. Rather than approaching Parkinson's disease as a single entity, the international cadre of researchers advocates targeting therapies to distinct 'nodes or clusters' of patients based on specific symptoms or molecular features of their disease.

Non-invasive prostate cancer diagnosing, monitoring

Technology under development will provide a non-invasive approach for diagnosing prostate cancer and tracking the disease's progression. It could enable doctors to determine how cancer patients are responding to different treatments without needing to perform invasive biopsies.

After the epigenome: The epitranscriptome

A new article explains that RNA also has its own spelling and grammar, just like DNA. These 'epigenetics of RNA' are called epitranscriptome.

After the epigenome: The epitranscriptome

(IDIBELL-Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute) Today, an article published in Cancer Discovery by Manel Esteller explains that RNA also has its own spelling and grammar, just like DNA. These 'epigenetics of RNA' are called epitranscriptome.

Caution needed for drugs in development for most common malignant pediatric brain tumor

Researchers have studied how a crucial cancer-related protein plays a role in one of the most aggressive forms of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood.

Single-cell analysis reveals subtypes of colorectal tumors

Combining single-cell genomics and computational techniques medical researchers have defined cell-type composition of cancerous cells from 11 colorectal tumors, as well as adjacent noncancerous cells, a key to more targeted diagnosis and treatment.

AML study correlates gene mutations with 34 disease subgroups

A large, new study of adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) correlates 80 cancer-related gene mutations with five subtypes of AML, which are defined by the presence of specific chromosomal abnormalities. The findings might help guide mutation testing and treatment decisions in the future.

New insights into side effects can help prostate cancer patients choose treatments

(UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center) A new study led by UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers identifies distinct patterns of side effects for modern-day prostate cancer treatments that patients could use to guide their choices.

Adverse effects, quality of life of treatment vs. no treatment for men with localized prostate cancer

(The JAMA Network Journals) Two studies published by JAMA examine the adverse effects and quality of life as reported by men with localized prostate cancer who chose treatment, observation or active surveillance.

Breakthrough discovery may make blood test feasible for detecting cancer

A series of proteins in blood plasma has now been identified that, when elevated, signify that the patient has cancer. This discovery, say researchers, may lead to a blood test that can detect and evaluate cancer in patients.

Genetic mutations help brain tumors evade targeting by immunotherapy treatments

(JCI Journals) In a study published this week in the JCI, Hideho Okada's lab at UCSF investigated whether acquired mutations in the enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), which are common in low-grade gliomas, help these tumors become resistant to immunotherapy. Show More Summary

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