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Effects of ocean acidification, temperature and copper on the development of early life stages of the native kelp Macrocystis Pyrifera and the invasive kelp Undaria Pinnatifida from Southern New Zealand

Anthropogenic activities have increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations from pre-industrial concentrations of 280 ppm to current values of 400 ppm. These atmospheric emissions of CO2 are responsible for the ongoing increase in seawater temperature and the reduction of pH in the ocean’ surface, phenomena known as ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA), respectively.
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