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First terrestrial occurrence of tistarite (Ti2O3): Ultra-low oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle beneath Mount Carmel, Israel

The minimum oxygen fugacity ( f O 2 ) of Earth’s upper mantle probably is controlled by metal saturation, as defined by the iron-wu?stite (IW) buffer reaction (FeO -> Fe + O). However, the widespread occurrence of moissanite (SiC) in kimberlites, and a suite of super-reduced minerals (SiC, alloys, native elements) in peridotites in Tibet and the Polar Urals (Russia), suggest that more reducing conditions ( f O 2 = 6–8 log units below IW) must occur locally in the mantle.
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