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Peak intervals of equatorial Pacific export production during the middle Miocene climate transition

The middle Miocene climate transition (MMCT) is characterized by an abrupt 1 increase in benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotopes at ca. 13.8 Ma, marking expansion of the Antarctic Ice Sheet and transition of Earth’s climate to a cooler, relatively stable glacial state. Also occurring during this period is a globally recognized positive carbon isotope excursion (16.9–13.5 Ma) in benthic and planktonic foraminifera with shorter carbon isotope maxima (CM) events, linking hypotheses for climate change at the time with the carbon cycle.
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